100 Notable alumni of
Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg

The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg is 182nd in the world, 59th in Europe, and 10th in Germany by aggregated alumni prominence. Below is the list of 100 notable alumni from the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg sorted by their wiki pages popularity. The directory includes famous graduates and former students along with research and academic staff.

  1. George Frideric Handel

    George Frideric Handel
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1685-1759 (aged 74)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    Studied in 1702-1703
    Occupations
    composermusicianharpsichordistorganistviolinist
    Biography

    George Frideric Handel (/ˈhændəl/; baptised Georg Friederich Händel, German: [ˈɡeːɔʁk ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈhɛndl̩] (listen); 23 February 1685 – 14 April 1759) was a German-British Baroque composer well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, concerti grossi, and organ concertos. Handel received his training in Halle and worked as a composer in Hamburg and Italy before settling in London in 1712, where he spent the bulk of his career and became a naturalised British subject in 1727. He was strongly influenced both by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition and by composers of the Italian Baroque. In turn, Handel's music forms one of the peaks of the "high baroque" style, bringing Italian opera to its highest development, creating the genres of English oratorio and organ concerto, and introducing a new style into English church music. He is consistently recognized as one of the greatest composers of his age.

  2. Edmund Husserl

    Edmund Husserl
    Born in
    Czech Republic Flag Czech Republic
    Years
    1859-1938 (aged 79)
    Occupations
    mathematicianphilosopheruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl was a German philosopher and mathematician who established the school of phenomenology.

  3. Georg Cantor

    Georg Cantor
    Born in
    Russia Flag Russia
    Years
    1845-1918 (aged 73)
    Occupations
    mathematicianphilosopheruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor was a German mathematician. He created set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of one-to-one correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and well-ordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are more numerous than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor's method of proof of this theorem implies the existence of an infinity of infinities. He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest, a fact he was well aware of.

  4. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1729-1781 (aged 52)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    1751-1752 graduated with master's degree
    Occupations
    lyricistphilosopherplaywrightpoetlibrarian
    Biography

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and a representative of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature. He is widely considered by theatre historians to be the first dramaturg in his role at Abel Seyler's Hamburg National Theatre.

  5. Oswald Spengler

    Oswald Spengler
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1880-1936 (aged 56)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    Graduated with Doctor of Philosophy in philosophy
    Occupations
    historianphilosophersociologistmathematicianwriter
    Biography

    Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art and their relation to his organic theory of history. He is best known for his two-volume work, The Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes), published in 1918 and 1922, covering world history. Spengler's model of history postulates that human cultures and civilizations are akin to biological entities, each with a limited, predictable, and deterministic lifespan.

  6. Novalis

    Novalis
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1772-1801 (aged 29)
    Occupations
    poetlyricistphilosopherengineerliterary theorist
    Biography

    Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg, better known by his pen name Novalis (German pronunciation: [noˈvaːlɪs]), was an 18th-century German aristocrat, poet, author, mystic and philosopher of Early German Romanticism.

  7. Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk

    Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1887-1977 (aged 90)
    Occupations
    politicianjuristdiplomateconomistmilitary personnel
    Biography

    Johann Ludwig "Lutz" Graf Schwerin von Krosigk was a German senior government official who served as the minister of Finance of Germany from 1932 to 1945 and de facto chancellor of Germany during May 1945.

  8. Johann Friedrich Struensee

    Johann Friedrich Struensee
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1737-1772 (aged 35)
    Occupations
    politicianphysician
    Biography

    Lensgreve Johann Friedrich Struensee was a German physician, philosopher and statesman. He became royal physician to the mentally ill King Christian VII of Denmark and a minister in the Danish government. He rose in power to a position of "de facto" regent of the country, where he tried to carry out widespread reforms. His affair with Queen Caroline Matilda ("Caroline Mathilde") caused a scandal, especially after the birth of a daughter, Princess Louise Augusta, and was the catalyst for the intrigues and power play that caused his downfall and dramatic death.

  9. Hans-Dietrich Genscher

    Hans-Dietrich Genscher
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1927-2016 (aged 89)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    In 1946 studied jurisprudence and general economics
    Occupations
    politicianlawyerassessoruniversity teachernon-fiction writer
    Biography

    Hans-Dietrich Genscher was a German statesman and a member of the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP), who served as Federal Minister of the Interior from 1969 to 1974, and as Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs and Vice Chancellor of Germany from 1974 to 1992 (except for a two-week break in 1982, after the FDP had left the Third Schmidt cabinet), making him the longest-serving occupant of either post and the only person to have held one of these positions under two different Chancellors of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1991 he was chairman of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

  10. Nitobe Inazō

    Nitobe Inazō
    Born in
    Japan Flag Japan
    Years
    1862-1933 (aged 71)
    Occupations
    lexicographerlinguistdiplomatwriterEsperantist
    Biography

    Nitobe Inazō was a Japanese author, educator, agricultural economist, diplomat, politician, and Christian during the pre-World War II period.

  11. Johann Joachim Winckelmann

    Johann Joachim Winckelmann
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1717-1768 (aged 51)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    1738-1740 studied theology
    Occupations
    art historianlibrarianarchaeologisthistorianwriter
    Biography

    Johann Joachim Winckelmann was a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art. "The prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology", Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories of style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art. Many consider him the father of the discipline of art history. He was one of the first to separate Greek Art into periods, and time classifications. His would be the decisive influence on the rise of the Neoclassical movement during the late 18th century. His writings influenced not only a new science of archaeology and art history but Western painting, sculpture, literature and even philosophy. Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art (1764) was one of the first books written in German to become a classic of European literature. His subsequent influence on Lessing, Herder, Goethe, Hölderlin, Heine, Nietzsche, George, and Spengler has been provocatively called "the Tyranny of Greece over Germany."

  12. Paul Tillich

    Paul Tillich
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1886-1965 (aged 79)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    Studied in 1912
    Occupations
    theologianphilosopheruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Paul Johannes Tillich was a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and Lutheran Protestant theologian who is widely regarded as one of the most influential theologians of the twentieth century. Tillich taught at a number of universities in Germany before immigrating to the United States in 1933, where he taught at Union Theological Seminary, Harvard Divinity School, and the University of Chicago.

  13. Joseph von Eichendorff

    Joseph von Eichendorff
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1788-1857 (aged 69)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    1805-1806 studied jurisprudence
    Occupations
    writerpoet lawyertranslatorplaywrightdiarist
    Biography

    Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff was a German poet, novelist, playwright, literary critic, translator, and anthologist. Eichendorff was one of the major writers and critics of Romanticism. Ever since their publication and up to the present day, some of his works have been very popular in Germany.

  14. Friedrich Schleiermacher

    Friedrich Schleiermacher
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1768-1834 (aged 66)
    Occupations
    philosophertheologiantranslatoruniversity teacherwriter
    Biography

    Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher was a German Reformed theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity. He also became influential in the evolution of higher criticism, and his work forms part of the foundation of the modern field of hermeneutics. Because of his profound effect on subsequent Christian thought, he is often called the "Father of Modern Liberal Theology" and is considered an early leader in liberal Christianity. The neo-orthodoxy movement of the twentieth century, typically (though not without challenge) seen to be spearheaded by Karl Barth, was in many ways an attempt to challenge his influence. As a philosopher he was a leader of German Romanticism.

  15. Hermann Ebbinghaus

    Hermann Ebbinghaus
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1850-1909 (aged 59)
    Occupations
    psychologistpedagogueuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Hermann Ebbinghaus was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect. He was also the first person to describe the learning curve. He was the father of the neo-Kantian philosopher Julius Ebbinghaus.

  16. Ľudovít Štúr

    Ľudovít Štúr
    Born in
    Slovakia Flag Slovakia
    Years
    1815-1856 (aged 41)
    Occupations
    linguistwriterphilosopherpoetjournalist
    Biography

    Ľudovít Velislav Štúr, known in his era as Ludevít Štúr, was a Slovak revolutionary politician, and writer. As a leader of the Slovak national revival in the 19th century, and the author of the Slovak language standard, he is lauded as one of the most important figures in Slovak history.

  17. Rudolf Clausius

    Rudolf Clausius
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1822-1888 (aged 66)
    Occupations
    university teachermathematiciantheoretical physicistphysicist
    Biography

    Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics. By his restatement of Sadi Carnot's principle known as the Carnot cycle, he gave the theory of heat a truer and sounder basis. His most important paper, "On the Moving Force of Heat", published in 1850, first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. In 1870 he introduced the virial theorem, which applied to heat.

  18. George Müller

    George Müller
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1805-1898 (aged 93)
    Occupations
    missionary
    Biography

    George Müller was a Christian evangelist and the director of the Ashley Down orphanage in Bristol, England. He was one of the founders of the Plymouth Brethren movement. Later during the split, his group was labelled as the Open Brethren.

  19. Mikael Agricola

    Mikael Agricola
    Born in
    Finland Flag Finland
    Years
    1510-1557 (aged 47)
    Occupations
    linguistpriesttranslatortheologianpoet
    Biography

    Mikael Agricola was a Finnish Lutheran clergyman who became the de facto founder of literary Finnish and a prominent proponent of the Protestant Reformation in Sweden, including Finland, which was a Swedish territory at the time. He is often called the "father of literary Finnish".

  20. Anton Wilhelm Amo

    Anton Wilhelm Amo
    Born in
    Ghana Flag Ghana
    Years
    1703-1783 (aged 80)
    Occupations
    philosopheruniversity teacherwriter
    Biography

    Anton Wilhelm Amo or Anthony William Amo was a German philosopher originally from what is now Ghana, of Akan ethnicity. Amo was a professor at the universities of Halle and Jena in Germany after studying there. Brought to Germany by the Dutch West India Company in 1707 as a child-slave, and given as a gift to Dukes August Wilhelm and Ludwig Rudolf von Wolfenbüttel, he was treated as a member of the family by their father Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Amo was the first African-born person known to have attended a European university. In 2020, Oxford University Press published a translation (into English) of his Latin works from the early 1730s.

  21. Sven Hedin

    Sven Hedin
    Born in
    Sweden Flag Sweden
    Years
    1865-1952 (aged 87)
    Occupations
    explorergeopoliticiangeographerillustratorpolitical scientist
    Biography

    Sven Anders Hedin, KNO1kl RVO, was a Swedish geographer, topographer, explorer, photographer, travel writer and illustrator of his own works. During four expeditions to Central Asia, he made the Transhimalaya known in the West and located sources of the Brahmaputra, Indus and Sutlej Rivers. He also mapped lake Lop Nur, and the remains of cities, grave sites and the Great Wall of China in the deserts of the Tarim Basin. In his book Från pol till pol (From Pole to Pole), Hedin describes a journey through Asia and Europe between the late 1880s and the early 1900s. While traveling, Hedin visited Turkey, the Caucasus, Tehran, Iraq, lands of the Kyrgyz people and the Russian Far East, India, China and Japan. The posthumous publication of his Central Asia Atlas marked the conclusion of his life's work.

  22. Carl Ritter

    Carl Ritter
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1779-1859 (aged 80)
    Occupations
    explorergeographeruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Carl Ritter was a German geographer. Along with Alexander von Humboldt, he is considered one of the founders of modern geography. From 1825 until his death, he occupied the first chair in geography at the University of Berlin.

  23. Clemens Brentano

    Clemens Brentano
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1778-1842 (aged 64)
    Occupations
    writerpoetcollector of fairy talesplaywright
    Biography

    Clemens Wenzeslaus Brentano was a German poet and novelist, and a major figure of German Romanticism. He was the uncle, via his brother Christian, of Franz and Lujo Brentano.

  24. August Ferdinand Möbius

    August Ferdinand Möbius
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1790-1868 (aged 78)
    Occupations
    mathematicianastronomeruniversity teacher
    Biography

    August Ferdinand Möbius was a German mathematician and theoretical astronomer.

  25. Paul Gerhardt

    Paul Gerhardt
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1607-1676 (aged 69)
    Occupations
    poettheologianhymnwriterwriter
    Biography

    Paul Gerhardt was a German theologian, Lutheran minister and hymnodist.

  26. Ludwig Tieck

    Ludwig Tieck
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1773-1853 (aged 80)
    Occupations
    poetwritertranslatorplaywrightliterary critic
    Biography

    Johann Ludwig Tieck was a German poet, fiction writer, translator, and critic. He was one of the founding fathers of the Romantic movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

  27. Robert Michels

    Robert Michels
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1876-1936 (aged 60)
    Occupations
    sociologistuniversity teacherphilosopher
    Biography

    Robert Michels was a German-born Italian sociologist who contributed to elite theory by describing the political behavior of intellectual elites.

  28. Wilhelm Eduard Weber

    Wilhelm Eduard Weber
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1804-1891 (aged 87)
    Occupations
    physicistuniversity teacherphilosopher
    Biography

    Wilhelm Eduard Weber was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.

  29. Horst Schumann

    Horst Schumann
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1906-1983 (aged 77)
    Occupations
    military physiciantorturerconcentration camp guardpolitician
    Biography

    Horst Schumann was an SS-Sturmbannführer (major) and medical doctor who conducted sterilization and castration experiments at Auschwitz and was particularly interested in the mass sterilization of Jews by means of X-rays.

  30. Dorothea Erxleben

    Dorothea Erxleben
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1715-1762 (aged 47)
    Occupations
    physician
    Biography

    Dorothea Christiane Erxleben was a German doctor who became the first female doctor of medicinal science in Germany.

  31. Nicolaus Zinzendorf

    Nicolaus Zinzendorf
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1700-1760 (aged 60)
    Occupations
    priesttranslatortheologianpoethymnwriter
    Biography

    Nikolaus Ludwig, Reichsgraf von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf was a German religious and social reformer, bishop of the Moravian Church, founder of the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine, Christian mission pioneer and a major figure of 18th century Protestantism.

  32. Siegbert Tarrasch

    Siegbert Tarrasch
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1862-1934 (aged 72)
    Occupations
    chess playerwriterchess theoreticianphysician
    Biography

    Siegbert Tarrasch was a German chess player, considered to have been among the strongest ones, and one of the most influential chess theoreticians of the late 19th and early 20th century.

  33. Heinrich Hoffmann

    Heinrich Hoffmann
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1809-1894 (aged 85)
    Occupations
    writerpsychiatristchildren's writerillustratorpoet
    Biography

    Heinrich Hoffmann was a German psychiatrist, who also wrote some short works including Der Struwwelpeter, an illustrated book portraying children misbehaving.

  34. Alfred Kerr

    Alfred Kerr
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1867-1948 (aged 81)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    In 1894 graduated with Doctor of Philosophy
    Occupations
    journalistwriterliterary criticlibrettistopinion journalist
    Biography

    Alfred Kerr was an influential German theatre critic and essayist of Jewish descent, nicknamed the Kulturpapst ("Culture Pope").

  35. Peter Simon Pallas

    Peter Simon Pallas
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1741-1811 (aged 70)
    Occupations
    explorerzoologistornithologistbiologistbotanist
    Biography

    Peter Simon Pallas FRS FRSE was a Prussian zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia (1767–1810).

  36. Ludwig Achim von Arnim

    Ludwig Achim von Arnim
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1781-1831 (aged 50)
    Occupations
    writerpoetnovelistplaywrightpoet lawyer
    Biography

    Carl Joachim Friedrich Ludwig von Arnim, better known as Achim von Arnim, was a German poet, novelist, and together with Clemens Brentano and Joseph von Eichendorff, a leading figure of German Romanticism.

  37. Hermann Staudinger

    Hermann Staudinger
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1881-1965 (aged 84)
    Occupations
    chemistengineeruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Hermann Staudinger was a German organic chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers. For this work he received the 1953 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

  38. Johanna Quaas

    Johanna Quaas
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1925-.. (age 97)
    Occupations
    artistic gymnast
    Biography

    Johanna Quaas is a German gymnast who, on 12 April 2012, was certified by Guinness World Records as the world's oldest active competitive gymnast. At the age of 86 when breaking the record, Quaas was a regular competitor in the amateur competition Landes-Seniorenspiele (State Senior Games) in Saxony. She became known worldwide when on 26 March 2012, YouTube user LieveDaffy uploaded two videos of Quaas performing gymnastics routines: one on the parallel bars and one on the floor. The clips became viral videos, and within six days of posting had generated over 1.1 million views each. In addition to being recognized by Guinness World Records, Quaas has received the Nadia Comăneci Sportsmanship Award from the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame.

  39. Enzo Zermelo

    Enzo Zermelo
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1871-1953 (aged 82)
    Occupations
    mathematicianphilosopheruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo was a German logician and mathematician, whose work has major implications for the foundations of mathematics. He is known for his role in developing Zermelo–Fraenkel axiomatic set theory and his proof of the well-ordering theorem. Furthermore, his 1929 work on ranking chess players is the first description of a model for pairwise comparison that continues to have a profound impact on various applied fields utilizing this method.

  40. Ernst Heinrich Weber

    Ernst Heinrich Weber
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1795-1878 (aged 83)
    Occupations
    psychologistphysicianphysiologistanatomistphysicist
    Biography

    Ernst Heinrich Weber was a German physician who is considered one of the founders of experimental psychology. He was an influential and important figure in the areas of physiology and psychology during his lifetime and beyond. His studies on sensation and touch, along with his emphasis on good experimental techniques led to new directions and areas of study for future psychologists, physiologists, and anatomists.

  41. Andreas Karlstadt

    Andreas Karlstadt
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1486-1541 (aged 55)
    Occupations
    theologianProtestant reformeruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein von Karlstadt, better known as Andreas Karlstadt or Andreas Carlstadt or Karolostadt, or simply as Andreas Bodenstein, was a German Protestant theologian, University of Wittenberg chancellor, a contemporary of Martin Luther and a reformer of the early Reformation.

  42. Hermann Grassmann

    Hermann Grassmann
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1809-1877 (aged 68)
    Occupations
    mathematicianphysicistlinguisthigh school teachertranslator
    Biography

    Hermann Günther Grassmann was a German polymath, known in his day as a linguist and now also as a mathematician. He was also a physicist, general scholar, and publisher. His mathematical work was little noted until he was in his sixties.

  43. Albert Anker

    Albert Anker
    Born in
    Switzerland Flag Switzerland
    Years
    1831-1910 (aged 79)
    Occupations
    illustratorpainterpottery painter
    Biography

    Albrecht Samuel Anker was a Swiss painter and illustrator who has been called the "national painter" of Switzerland because of his enduringly popular depictions of 19th-century Swiss village life.

  44. Karamba Diaby

    Karamba Diaby
    Born in
    Senegal Flag Senegal
    Years
    1961-.. (age 61)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    1986-1996 graduated with Doctor rerum naturalium in chemistry
    Occupations
    politicianchemist
    Biography

    Karamba Diaby is a Senegalese-born German chemist and politician of the Social Democratic Party who has been serving as a member of the Bundestag since the 2013 elections.

  45. Frederick Muhlenberg

    Frederick Muhlenberg
    Born in
    United States Flag United States
    Years
    1750-1801 (aged 51)
    Occupations
    politician
    Biography

    Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg was an American minister and politician who was the first Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and the first Dean of the United States House of Representatives. A member of the Federalist party, he was delegate to the Pennsylvania state constitutional convention and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and a Lutheran pastor by profession, Muhlenberg was born in Trappe, Pennsylvania. His home, known as The Speaker's House, is now a museum and is currently undergoing restoration to restore its appearance during Muhlenberg's occupancy.

  46. Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

    Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1497-1546 (aged 49)
    Occupations
    aristocrat
    Biography

    Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg, also frequently called Ernest the Confessor, was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a champion of the Protestant cause during the early years of the Protestant Reformation. He was the Prince of Lüneburg and ruled the Lüneburg-Celle subdivision of the Welf family's Brunswick-Lüneburg duchy from 1520 until his death.

  47. Paul Luther

    Paul Luther
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1533-1593 (aged 60)
    Occupations
    chemistphysicianuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Paul Luther was a German physician, medical chemist, and alchemist. He was the third son of the German Protestant Reformer Martin Luther and was successively physician to John Frederick II, Duke of Saxony; Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg; Augustus, Elector of Saxony and his successor Christian I, Elector of Saxony. He taught alchemy to Anne of Denmark.

  48. Hermann Cohen

    Hermann Cohen
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1842-1918 (aged 76)
    Occupations
    philosopheracademicuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Hermann Cohen was a German Jewish philosopher, one of the founders of the Marburg school of neo-Kantianism, and he is often held to be "probably the most important Jewish philosopher of the nineteenth century".

  49. Friedrich Mohs

    Friedrich Mohs
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1773-1839 (aged 66)
    Occupations
    mineralogistphysicistuniversity teachercrystallographer
    Biography

    Carl Friedrich Christian Mohs was a German geologist and mineralogist. He was the creator of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Mohs also introduced a classification of the crystal forms in crystal systems independently of Christian Samuel Weiss.

  50. Jan Jesenius

    Jan Jesenius
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1566-1621 (aged 55)
    Occupations
    politicianphilosopherphysicianpedagoguewriter
    Biography

    Jan Jesenius, also written as Jessenius, was a Bohemian physician, politician and philosopher.

  51. Georg Wilhelm Richmann

    Georg Wilhelm Richmann
    Born in
    Estonia Flag Estonia
    Years
    1711-1753 (aged 42)
    Occupations
    physicistinventor
    Biography

    Georg Wilhelm Richmann, (Old Style: 11 July 1711 – 26 July 1753) was a Russian Imperial physicist of Baltic German descent. Richmann did pioneering work on electricity, atmospheric electricity, and calorimetry. He died by electrocution in St. Petersburg when struck by apparent ball lightning produced by an experiment attempting to ground the electrical discharge from a storm.

  52. Carl Loewe

    Carl Loewe
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1796-1869 (aged 73)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    Studied in 1817
    Occupations
    composersingerconductorcantororganist
    Biography

    Johann Carl Gottfried Loewe, usually called Carl Loewe (sometimes seen as Karl Loewe), was a German composer, tenor singer and conductor. In his lifetime, his songs ("Balladen") were well enough known for some to call him the "Schubert of North Germany", and Hugo Wolf came to admire his work. He is less known today, but his ballads and songs, which number over 400, are occasionally performed.

  53. Ernst Kummer

    Ernst Kummer
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1810-1893 (aged 83)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    Studied in 1828
    Occupations
    mathematicianuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Ernst Eduard Kummer was a German mathematician. Skilled in applied mathematics, Kummer trained German army officers in ballistics; afterwards, he taught for 10 years in a gymnasium, the German equivalent of high school, where he inspired the mathematical career of Leopold Kronecker.

  54. Sarah Kirsch

    Sarah Kirsch
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1935-2013 (aged 78)
    Occupations
    poetwriterchildren's writertranslator
    Biography

    Sarah Kirsch was a German poet.

  55. Andrej Sládkovič

    Andrej Sládkovič
    Born in
    Slovakia Flag Slovakia
    Years
    1820-1872 (aged 52)
    Occupations
    poetwriterliterary criticplaywrightjournalist
    Biography

    Andrej Sládkovič was a Slovak poet, critic, publicist and translator and Lutheran priest.

  56. August Hermann Francke

    August Hermann Francke
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1663-1727 (aged 64)
    Occupations
    theologianteacherpedagogueuniversity teacher
    Biography

    August Hermann Francke was a German Lutheran clergyman, theologian, philanthropist, and Biblical scholar.

  57. Carl Gotthard Langhans

    Carl Gotthard Langhans
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1732-1808 (aged 76)
    Occupations
    architect
    Biography

    Carl Gotthard Langhans was a Prussian master builder and royal architect. His churches, palaces, grand houses, interiors, city gates and theatres in Silesia (now Poland), Berlin, Potsdam and elsewhere belong to the earliest examples of Neoclassical architecture in Germany. His best-known work is the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, national symbol of today’s Germany and German reunification in 1989/90.

  58. Matthias Bel

    Matthias Bel
    Born in
    Slovakia Flag Slovakia
    Years
    1684-1749 (aged 65)
    Occupations
    writerhistoriantheologianpedagoguepoet
    Biography

    Matthias Bel or Matthias Bél was a Lutheran pastor and polymath from the Kingdom of Hungary. Bel was active in the fields of pedagogy, philosophy, philology, history, and theoretical theology; he was the founder of Hungarian geographic science and a pioneer of descriptive ethnography and economy. A leading figure in pietism. He is also known as the Great Ornament of Hungary (Magnum decus Hungariae).

  59. Vydūnas

    Vydūnas
    Born in
    Lithuania Flag Lithuania
    Years
    1868-1953 (aged 85)
    Occupations
    authorphilosopherwriterpoet
    Biography

    Wilhelm Storost, artistic name Vilius Storostas-Vydūnas, mostly known as Vydūnas, was a Prussian-Lithuanian teacher, poet, humanist, philosopher and Lithuanian writer, a leader of the Prussian Lithuanian national movement in Lithuania Minor, and one of leaders of the theosophical movement in East Prussia.

  60. Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths

    Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1759-1839 (aged 80)
    Occupations
    non-fiction writerteachergeographergymnastpedagogue
    Biography

    Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths, also called Guts Muth or Gutsmuths, was a teacher and educator in Germany, and is especially known for his role in the development of physical education. He is thought of as the "grandfather of gymnastics" – the "father" being Friedrich Ludwig Jahn. GutsMuths introduced systematic physical exercise into the school curriculum, and he developed the basic principles of artistic gymnastics.

  61. Gustav Nachtigal

    Gustav Nachtigal
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1834-1885 (aged 51)
    Occupations
    explorerwriter
    Biography

    Gustav Nachtigal was a German military surgeon and explorer of Central and West Africa. He is further known as the German Empire's consul-general for Tunisia and Commissioner for West Africa. His mission as commissioner resulted in Togoland and Kamerun becoming the first colonies of a German colonial empire. The Gustav-Nachtigal-Medal, awarded by the Berlin Geographical Society, is named after him.

  62. Carolus Clusius

    Carolus Clusius
    Born in
    France Flag France
    Years
    1526-1609 (aged 83)
    Occupations
    botanistphysiciantranslatoruniversity teachermycologist
    Biography

    Charles de l'Écluse, L'Escluse, or Carolus Clusius, seigneur de Watènes, was an Artois doctor and pioneering botanist, perhaps the most influential of all 16th-century scientific horticulturists.

  63. Immanuel Bekker

    Immanuel Bekker
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1785-1871 (aged 86)
    Occupations
    linguistclassical philologistuniversity teacherliterary criticclassical scholar
    Biography

    August Immanuel Bekker was a German philologist and critic.

  64. Friedrich Wieck

    Friedrich Wieck
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1785-1873 (aged 88)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    In 1804 studied theology
    Occupations
    pianistmusicologistmusic pedagoguemusic criticcomposer
    Biography

    Johann Gottlob Friedrich Wieck was a noted German piano teacher, voice teacher, owner of a piano store, and author of essays and music reviews. He is remembered as the teacher of his daughter, Clara, a child prodigy who was undertaking international concert tours by age eleven and who later married her father's pupil Robert Schumann, in defiance of her father's extreme objections. As Clara Schumann, she became one of the most famous pianists of her time. Another of Wieck's daughters, Marie Wieck, also had a career in music, although not nearly so illustrious as Clara's. Other pupils included Hans von Bülow.

  65. Georg Joachim Rheticus

    Georg Joachim Rheticus
    Born in
    Austria Flag Austria
    Years
    1514-1574 (aged 60)
    Occupations
    mathematicianastronomercartographerphysicianuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Georg Joachim de Porris, also known as Rheticus, was a mathematician, astronomer, cartographer, navigational-instrument maker, medical practitioner, and teacher. He is perhaps best known for his trigonometric tables and as Nicolaus Copernicus's sole pupil. He facilitated the publication of his master's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres).

  66. Johann Christoph Adelung

    Johann Christoph Adelung
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1732-1806 (aged 74)
    Occupations
    lexicographerphilologistlibrarianlinguisttranslator
    Biography

    Johann Christoph Adelung was a German grammarian and philologist.

  67. Erich von Tschermak

    Erich von Tschermak
    Born in
    Austria Flag Austria
    Years
    1871-1962 (aged 91)
    Occupations
    biologistgeneticistbotanistprofessorfarmer
    Biography

    Erich Tschermak, Edler von Seysenegg was an Austrian agronomist who developed several new disease-resistant crops, including wheat-rye and oat hybrids. He was a son of the Moravia-born mineralogist Gustav Tschermak von Seysenegg. His maternal grandfather was the famous botanist, Eduard Fenzl, who taught Gregor Mendel botany during his student days in Vienna.

  68. Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch

    Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1808-1883 (aged 75)
    Occupations
    economistbankerjuristpoliticianwriter
    Biography

    Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch, also Hermann Schulze, was a German politician and economist. He was responsible for the organizing of the world's first credit unions. He was also co-founder of the German Progress Party.

  69. Bernhard von Gudden

    Bernhard von Gudden
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1824-1886 (aged 62)
    Occupations
    psychiatristuniversity teacheranatomistneurologist
    Biography

    Johann Bernhard Aloys von Gudden was a German neuroanatomist and psychiatrist born in Kleve.

  70. Johann Reinhold Forster

    Johann Reinhold Forster
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1729-1798 (aged 69)
    Occupations
    exploreranthropologistornithologistbryologistnaturalist
    Biography

    Johann Reinhold Forster was a German Reformed (Calvinist) pastor and naturalist of partially Scottish descent who made contributions to the early ornithology of Europe and North America. He is best known as the naturalist on James Cook's second Pacific voyage, where he was accompanied by his son Georg Forster. These expeditions promoted the career of Johann Reinhold Forster and the findings became the bedrock of colonial professionalism and helped set the stage for the future development of anthropology and ethnology. They also laid the framework for general concern about the impact that alteration of the physical environment for European economic expansion would have on exotic societies.

  71. Arthur Ruppin

    Arthur Ruppin
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1876-1943 (aged 67)
    Occupations
    philosopherpoliticianpedagoguedemographersociologist
    Biography

    Arthur Ruppin was a Zionist proponent of pseudoscientific race theory and one of the founders of the city of Tel Aviv. Appointed director of Berlin's Bureau for Jewish statistics (Büro für Statistik der Juden) in 1904, he moved to Palestine in 1907, and from 1908 was the director of the Palestine Office of the Zionist Organization in Jaffa, organizing Zionist immigration to Palestine. In 1926, Ruppin joined the faculty of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and founded the Department for the Sociology of the Jews. Described posthumously as the "founder of German-Jewish demography" and "father of Israeli sociology", his best known sociological work was The Jews in the Modern World (1934).

  72. Joachim Heinrich Campe

    Joachim Heinrich Campe
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1746-1818 (aged 72)
    Occupations
    lexicographerlinguistwriterchildren's writerpublisher
    Biography

    Joachim Heinrich Campe was a German writer, linguist, educator and publisher. He was a major representative of philanthropinism and the German Enlightenment.

  73. Friedrich Georg Jünger

    Friedrich Georg Jünger
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1898-1977 (aged 79)
    Occupations
    writertranslatorpoet lawyerphilosopher
    Biography

    Friedrich "Fritz" Georg Jünger was a German writer and lawyer. He wrote poetry, cultural criticism and novels. He was the younger brother of Ernst Jünger.

  74. Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder

    Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1773-1798 (aged 25)
    Occupations
    writerjuristpoet lawyerart historian
    Biography

    Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder was a German jurist and writer. With Ludwig Tieck, he was a co-founder of German Romanticism.

  75. Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber

    Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1739-1810 (aged 71)
    Occupations
    botanistnaturalistlichenologistuniversity teacherphysician
    Biography

    Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber, often styled J.C.D. von Schreber, was a German naturalist.

  76. Philip Schaff

    Philip Schaff
    Born in
    Switzerland Flag Switzerland
    Years
    1819-1893 (aged 74)
    Occupations
    Church historiantranslatortheologianuniversity teacherwriter
    Biography

    Philip Schaff was a Swiss-born, German-educated Protestant theologian and ecclesiastical historian, who spent most of his adult life living and teaching in the United States.

  77. Michael Stifel

    Michael Stifel
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1487-1567 (aged 80)
    Occupations
    mathematicianuniversity teacherwritermonktheologian
    Biography

    Michael Stifel or Styfel was a German monk, Protestant reformer and mathematician. He was an Augustinian who became an early supporter of Martin Luther. He was later appointed professor of mathematics at Jena University.

  78. Wilhelm Heinrich Solf

    Wilhelm Heinrich Solf
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1862-1936 (aged 74)
    Occupations
    diplomatpoliticianjuristphysician
    Biography

    Wilhelm Heinrich Solf was a German scholar, diplomat, jurist and statesman.

  79. Lutz Seiler

    Lutz Seiler
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1963-.. (age 59)
    Occupations
    writerpoet
    Biography

    Lutz Seiler is a German poet and novelist.

  80. Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn

    Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1809-1864 (aged 55)
    Occupations
    botanistgeologistphysicianvolcanologistphotographer
    Biography

    Friedrich Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn, was a German-Dutch botanist and geologist. His father, Friedrich Junghuhn was a barber and a surgeon. His mother was Christine Marie Schiele. Junghuhn studied medicine in Halle and in Berlin from 1827 to 1831, meanwhile (1830) publishing a seminal paper on mushrooms in Limnaea. Ein Journal für Botanik.

  81. Johannes Popitz

    Johannes Popitz
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1884-1945 (aged 61)
    Occupations
    juristpoliticianresistance fightereconomist
    Biography

    Johannes Popitz was a Prussian finance minister and a member of the German Resistance against the government of Nazi Germany. He was the father of Heinrich Popitz, an important German sociologist.

  82. George Spalatin

    George Spalatin
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1484-1545 (aged 61)
    Occupations
    theologianhistorianjurist
    Biography

    Georg Spalatin (German: [ˈʃpaːlatiːn]) was the pseudonym taken by Georg Burkhardt (German: [ˈɡeːɔʁk ˈbʊʁkhaʁt]; 17 January 1484 – 16 January 1545), a German humanist, theologian, reformer, secretary of the Saxon Elector Frederick the Wise, as well as an important figure in the history of the Reformation.

  83. Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt

    Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt
    Born in
    Denmark Flag Denmark
    Years
    1659-1719 (aged 60)
    Occupations
    juristmilitary personnel
    Biography

    Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt was a Swedish general, particularly known for his participation in the Great Northern War.

  84. Franz Ernst Neumann

    Franz Ernst Neumann
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1798-1895 (aged 97)
    Occupations
    physicistmathematicianuniversity teachercrystallographermineralogist
    Biography

    Franz Ernst Neumann was a German mineralogist, physicist and mathematician.

  85. Johann Christian Reil

    Johann Christian Reil
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1759-1813 (aged 54)
    Occupations
    military physicianphysicianpsychiatristuniversity teacherphysiologist
    Biography

    Johann Christian Reil was a German physician, physiologist, anatomist, and psychiatrist. He coined the term psychiatry – Psychiatrie in German – in 1808.

  86. Friedrich Schorlemmer

    Friedrich Schorlemmer
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1944-.. (age 78)
    Occupations
    politiciantheologian
    Biography

    Friedrich Schorlemmer is a German Protestant theologian. He was a prominent member of the civil rights movement in the German Democratic Republic and has continued to take part in politics after German reunification in 1990.

  87. Albrecht Ritschl

    Albrecht Ritschl
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1822-1889 (aged 67)
    Occupations
    theologianphilosopheruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Albrecht Ritschl was a German Protestant theologian.

  88. Karl Adolph von Basedow

    Karl Adolph von Basedow
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1799-1854 (aged 55)
    Occupations
    physician
    Biography

    Carl Adolph von Basedow was a German physician most famous for reporting the symptoms of what could later be dubbed Graves-Basedow disease, now technically known as exophthalmic goiter.

  89. Caspar Friedrich Wolff

    Caspar Friedrich Wolff
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1734-1794 (aged 60)
    Occupations
    military physicianzoologistuniversity teacherphysiologistanatomist
    Biography

    Caspar Friedrich Wolff was a German physiologist and one of the founders of embryology.

  90. Arnold Ruge

    Arnold Ruge
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1802-1880 (aged 78)
    Occupations
    philosopherwritertranslatorjournalistpolitician
    Biography

    Arnold Ruge was a German philosopher and political writer. He was the older brother of Ludwig Ruge.

  91. Hermann Burmeister

    Hermann Burmeister
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1807-1892 (aged 85)
    Occupations
    curatorornithologistgeographergeologistbotanist
    Biography

    Karl Hermann Konrad Burmeister was a German Argentine zoologist, entomologist, herpetologist, botanist, and coleopterologist. He served as a professor at the University of Halle, headed the museum there and published the Handbuch der Entomologie (1832–1855) before moving to Argentina where he worked until his death.

  92. Dimitri Uznadze

    Dimitri Uznadze
    Born in
    Georgia Flag Georgia
    Years
    1886-1950 (aged 64)
    Occupations
    philosopheruniversity teacherpsychologist
    Biography

    Dimitri Uznadze was a Georgian psychologist and professor of psychology, co-founder of the Tbilisi State University (TSU) and of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS).

  93. Jacob Christian Schäffer

    Jacob Christian Schäffer
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1718-1790 (aged 72)
    Occupations
    botanistornithologistlepidopteristtheologianmycologist
    Biography

    Jacob Christian Schäffer, alternatively Jakob, was a German dean, professor, botanist, mycologist, entomologist, ornithologist and inventor.

  94. Ferenc Dávid

    Ferenc Dávid
    Born in
    Romania Flag Romania
    Years
    1510-1579 (aged 69)
    Enrolled in the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
    Studied in 1551
    Occupations
    theologian
    Biography

    Ferenc Dávid was a Unitarian preacher from Transylvania, the founder of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania, and the leading figure of the Nontrinitarian movements during the Protestant Reformation.

  95. Carl Neumann

    Carl Neumann
    Years
    1832-1925 (aged 93)
    Occupations
    mathematicianuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Carl Gottfried Neumann was a German mathematician.

  96. Gáspár Károlyi

    Gáspár Károlyi
    Born in
    Romania Flag Romania
    Years
    1529-1591 (aged 62)
    Occupations
    theologiantranslatorBible translator
    Biography

    Gáspár Károlyi was a Hungarian Calvinist pastor.

  97. Karl Möbius

    Karl Möbius
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1825-1908 (aged 83)
    Occupations
    biologistzoologistuniversity teacherecologistbotanist
    Biography

    Karl August Möbius was a German zoologist who was a pioneer in the field of ecology and a former director of the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin.

  98. Paul Georg von Möllendorff

    Paul Georg von Möllendorff
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1847-1901 (aged 54)
    Occupations
    linguistdiplomat
    Biography

    Paul Georg von Möllendorff was a German linguist and diplomat. Möllendorff is mostly known for his service as an adviser to the Korean king Gojong in the late nineteenth century and for his contributions to Sinology. In English-language publications, Möllendorff is often credited with having designed a system for romanizing the Manchu language, which was in fact the creation of his compatriot Hans Conon von der Gabelentz

  99. Pierre Belon

    Pierre Belon
    Born in
    France Flag France
    Years
    1517-1564 (aged 47)
    Occupations
    naturalistwriterzoologistphysicianbotanist
    Biography

    Pierre Belon was a French traveller, naturalist, writer and diplomat. Like many others of the Renaissance period, he studied and wrote on a range of topics including ichthyology, ornithology, botany, comparative anatomy, architecture and Egyptology. He is sometimes known as Pierre Belon du Mans, or, in the Latin in which his works appeared, as Petrus Bellonius Cenomanus. The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (known for Pavlov's dogs) called him the "prophet of comparative anatomy".

  100. Kuno Fischer

    Kuno Fischer
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1824-1907 (aged 83)
    Occupations
    philosopherliterary historianuniversity teacherwriter
    Biography

    Ernst Kuno Berthold Fischer was a German philosopher, a historian of philosophy and a critic.