100 Notable alumni of
Humboldt University of Berlin

The Humboldt University of Berlin is 27th in the world, 8th in Europe, and 1st in Germany by aggregated alumni prominence. Below is the list of 100 notable alumni from the Humboldt University of Berlin sorted by their wiki pages popularity. The directory includes famous graduates and former students along with research and academic staff.

  1. Karl Marx

    Karl Marx
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1818-1883 (aged 65)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    In 1836 studied jurisprudence and philosophy
    Occupations
    economistjournalisthistorianphilosophersociologist
    Biography

    Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, critic of political economy, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary. His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet The Communist Manifesto and the three-volume Das Kapital (1867–1883). Marx's political and philosophical thought had enormous influence on subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history. His name has been used as an adjective, a noun, and a school of social theory.

  2. Arthur Schopenhauer

    Arthur Schopenhauer
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1788-1860 (aged 72)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    Studied in 1811
    Occupations
    university teacherphilosopherwritermusicologisttranslator
    Biography

    Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation (expanded in 1844), which characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind noumenal will. Building on the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that rejected the contemporaneous ideas of German idealism. He was among the first thinkers in Western philosophy to share and affirm significant tenets of Indian philosophy, such as asceticism, denial of the self, and the notion of the world-as-appearance. His work has been described as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism.

  3. Max Weber

    Max Weber
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1864-1920 (aged 56)
    Occupations
    juristeconomistsociologistphilosopheranthropologist
    Biography

    Maximilian Karl Emil Weber was a German sociologist, historian, jurist, and political economist regarded as among the most important theorists of the development of modern Western society. His ideas profoundly influence social theory and research. While Weber did not see himself as a sociologist, he is recognized as one of the fathers of sociology along with Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, and Émile Durkheim.

  4. Angela Davis

    Angela Davis
    Born in
    United States Flag United States
    Years
    1944-.. (age 78)
    Occupations
    writerhuman rights activistteacherphilosopherautobiographer
    Biography

    Angela Yvonne Davis is an American political activist, philosopher, academic, scholar, and author. She is a professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz. A feminist and a Marxist, Davis was a longtime member of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA) and is a founding member of the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism (CCDS). She is the author of over ten books on class, gender, race, and the US prison system.

  5. Max Planck

    Max Planck
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1858-1947 (aged 89)
    Occupations
    theoretical physicistuniversity teacherphysicist
    Biography

    Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

  6. Felix Mendelssohn

    Felix Mendelssohn
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1809-1847 (aged 38)
    Occupations
    composerpianistorganistconductormusician
    Biography

    Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. Mendelssohn's compositions include symphonies, concertos, piano music, organ music and chamber music. His best-known works include the overture and incidental music for A Midsummer Night's Dream, the Italian Symphony, the Scottish Symphony, the oratorio St. Paul, the oratorio Elijah, the overture The Hebrides, the mature Violin Concerto and the String Octet. The melody for the Christmas carol "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing" is also his. Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words are his most famous solo piano compositions.

  7. W. E. B. Du Bois

    W. E. B. Du Bois
    Born in
    United States Flag United States
    Years
    1868-1963 (aged 95)
    Occupations
    historiannovelistphilosopherwritersociologist
    Biography

    William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was an American sociologist, socialist, historian and Pan-Africanist civil rights activist. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a relatively tolerant and integrated community, and after completing graduate work at the University of Berlin and Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.

  8. Ivan Turgenev

    Ivan Turgenev
    Born in
    Russia Flag Russia
    Years
    1818-1883 (aged 65)
    Occupations
    writerpoetplaywrightnovelisttranslator
    Biography

    Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev was a Russian novelist, short story writer, poet, playwright, translator and popularizer of Russian literature in the West.

  9. Sahra Wagenknecht

    Sahra Wagenknecht
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1969-.. (age 53)
    Occupations
    politicianeconomistnon-fiction writerjournalist
    Biography

    Sahra Wagenknecht is a German politician, economist, author and publicist. Since 2009, she has been a member of the Bundestag for The Left. From 2015 to 2019 she served as parliamentary co-chair of her party.

  10. Dietrich Bonhoeffer

    Dietrich Bonhoeffer
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1906-1945 (aged 39)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    In 1927 graduated with doctorate in theology
    Occupations
    theologianphilosopherresistance fighterpoet
    Biography

    Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian, anti-Nazi dissident, and key founding member of the Confessing Church. His writings on Christianity's role in the secular world have become widely influential, and his book The Cost of Discipleship is described as a modern classic.Apart from his theological writings, Bonhoeffer was known for his staunch resistance to the Nazi dictatorship, including vocal opposition to Hitler's euthanasia program and genocidal persecution of the Jews. He was arrested in April 1943 by the Gestapo and imprisoned at Tegel prison for one and a half years. Later, he was transferred to Flossenbürg concentration camp.

  11. Heinrich Heine

    Heinrich Heine
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1797-1856 (aged 59)
    Occupations
    poetwriterjournalistliterary criticpoet lawyer
    Biography

    Christian Johann Heinrich Heine was a German poet, writer and literary critic. He is best known outside Germany for his early lyric poetry, which was set to music in the form of Lieder (art songs) by composers such as Robert Schumann and Franz Schubert. Heine's later verse and prose are distinguished by their satirical wit and irony. He is considered a member of the Young Germany movement. His radical political views led to many of his works being banned by German authorities—which, however, only added to his fame. He spent the last 25 years of his life as an expatriate in Paris.

  12. Mikhail Bakunin

    Mikhail Bakunin
    Born in
    Russia Flag Russia
    Years
    1814-1876 (aged 62)
    Occupations
    philosopherwriterpoliticiananarchist
    Biography

    Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was a Russian revolutionary anarchist, socialist and founder of collectivist anarchism. He is considered among the most influential figures of anarchism and a major founder of the revolutionary socialist and social anarchist tradition. Bakunin's prestige as a revolutionary also made him one of the most famous ideologues in Europe, gaining substantial influence among radicals throughout Russia and Europe.

  13. Walter Benjamin

    Walter Benjamin
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1892-1940 (aged 48)
    Occupations
    philosopherwritertranslatoressayistliterary critic
    Biography

    Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin was a German Jewish philosopher, cultural critic and essayist. An eclectic thinker, combining elements of German idealism, Romanticism, Western Marxism, and Jewish mysticism, Benjamin made enduring and influential contributions to aesthetic theory, literary criticism, and historical materialism. He was associated with the Frankfurt School, and also maintained formative friendships with thinkers such as playwright Bertolt Brecht and Kabbalah scholar Gershom Scholem. He was also related to German political theorist and philosopher Hannah Arendt through her first marriage to Benjamin's cousin Günther Anders.

  14. Michelle Bachelet

    Michelle Bachelet
    Born in
    Chile Flag Chile
    Years
    1951-.. (age 71)
    Occupations
    politiciansurgeonepidemiologist
    Biography

    Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria is a Chilean politician who has served as United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights since 2018. She also previously served as President of Chile from 2006 to 2010 and 2014 to 2018 for the Socialist Party of Chile; she is the first woman to hold the Chilean presidency and the first elected female leader in South America. After leaving the presidency in 2010 and while not immediately reelectable, she was appointed the first executive director of the newly created United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. In December 2013, Bachelet was reelected with over 62% of the vote, bettering the 54% she obtained in 2006. She was the first President of Chile to be reelected since 1932.

  15. Alfred Wegener

    Alfred Wegener
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1880-1930 (aged 50)
    Occupations
    geologistexplorerastronomermeteorologistuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Alfred Lothar Wegener was a German climatologist, geologist, geophysicist, meteorologist, and polar researcher.

  16. Wilhelm Wundt

    Wilhelm Wundt
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1832-1920 (aged 88)
    Occupations
    philosopheruniversity teacherpsychologistphysiologistauthor
    Biography

    Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was a German physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the fathers of modern psychology. Wundt, who distinguished psychology as a science from philosophy and biology, was the first person ever to call himself a psychologist. He is widely regarded as the "father of experimental psychology". In 1879, at University of Leipzig, Wundt founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research. This marked psychology as an independent field of study. By creating this laboratory he was able to establish psychology as a separate science from other disciplines. He also formed the first academic journal for psychological research, Philosophische Studien (from 1881 to 1902), set up to publish the institute's research.

  17. Fritz Haber

    Fritz Haber
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1868-1934 (aged 66)
    Occupations
    chemistphysicistengineeracademicuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Fritz Haber was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. This invention is of importance for the large-scale synthesis of fertilizers and explosives. It is estimated that two thirds of annual global food production uses nitrogen from the Haber–Bosch process, and that this supports nearly half the world population. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. Haber is also considered the "father of chemical warfare" for his years of pioneering work developing and weaponizing chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I, especially his actions during the Second Battle of Ypres.

  18. Edmund Husserl

    Edmund Husserl
    Born in
    Czech Republic Flag Czech Republic
    Years
    1859-1938 (aged 79)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    1878-1881 studied mathematics
    Occupations
    mathematicianphilosopheruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl was a German philosopher and mathematician who established the school of phenomenology.

  19. Dieter Hallervorden

    Dieter Hallervorden
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1935-.. (age 87)
    Occupations
    television presentervoice actorsingerwritercabaret artist
    Biography

    Dieter "Didi" Hallervorden is a German comedian, actor, singer, and cabaret artist.

  20. Emil Cioran

    Emil Cioran
    Born in
    Romania Flag Romania
    Years
    1911-1995 (aged 84)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    Studied in 1933-1935
    Occupations
    philosopherwriterdiaristaphoristtranslator
    Biography

    Emil Mihai Cioran was a Romanian philosopher and essayist, who published works in both Romanian and French. His work has been noted for its pervasive philosophical pessimism, style, and aphorisms. His works frequently engaged with issues of suffering, decay, and nihilism. In 1937, Cioran moved to the Latin Quarter of Paris, which became his permanent residence, wherein he lived in seclusion with his partner, Simone Boué.

  21. Palina Rojinski

    Palina Rojinski
    Born in
    Russia Flag Russia
    Years
    1985-.. (age 37)
    Occupations
    actortelevision presentermodelfilm actordisc jockey
    Biography

    Palina Rojinski is a Russian-German television presenter, actress, model, and DJ. Her father is Jewish, her mother is Christian.

  22. Joachim Sauer

    Joachim Sauer
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1949-.. (age 73)
    Occupations
    chemistuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Joachim Sauer is a German quantum chemist and professor emeritus of physical and theoretical chemistry at the Humboldt University of Berlin. He is the husband of the former chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel. He is one of the seven members of the board of trustees of the Friede Springer Foundation, together with former German president Horst Köhler and others.

  23. Rudolf Virchow

    Rudolf Virchow
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1821-1902 (aged 81)
    Occupations
    biologistanthropologistpaleontologistarchaeologistprehistorian
    Biography

    Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" and as the founder of social medicine, and to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine".

  24. Herbert Marcuse

    Herbert Marcuse
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1898-1979 (aged 81)
    Occupations
    philosophersociologistpolitical theoristuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Herbert Marcuse was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory. Born in Berlin, Marcuse studied at the Humboldt University of Berlin and then at Freiburg, where he received his PhD. He was a prominent figure in the Frankfurt-based Institute for Social Research – what later became known as the Frankfurt School. He was married to Sophie Wertheim (1924–1951), Inge Neumann (1955–1973), and Erica Sherover (1976–1979). In his written works, he criticized capitalism, modern technology, Soviet Communism and popular culture, arguing that they represent new forms of social control.

  25. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz

    Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1857-1894 (aged 37)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    Studied in 1878
    Occupations
    physicistphilosopherinventorengineeruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Heinrich Rudolf Hertz was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves predicted by James Clerk Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. The unit of frequency, cycle per second, was named the "hertz" in his honor.

  26. Ernst Haeckel

    Ernst Haeckel
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1834-1919 (aged 85)
    Occupations
    biologistphysicianzoologistphilosophernaturalist
    Biography

    Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a German zoologist, naturalist, eugenicist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist and artist. He discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms and connected many terms in biology, including ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

  27. Ludwig Feuerbach

    Ludwig Feuerbach
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1804-1872 (aged 68)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    1824-1826 studied philosophy
    Occupations
    anthropologistphilosopheruniversity teacherwritertheologian
    Biography

    Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach was a German anthropologist and philosopher, best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity that strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.

  28. Gustav Stresemann

    Gustav Stresemann
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1878-1929 (aged 51)
    Occupations
    politicianstatespersondiplomat
    Biography

    Gustav Ernst Stresemann was a German statesman who served as chancellor in 1923 (for 102 days) and as foreign minister from 1923 to 1929, during the Weimar Republic.

  29. Georg Cantor

    Georg Cantor
    Born in
    Russia Flag Russia
    Years
    1845-1918 (aged 73)
    Occupations
    mathematicianphilosopheruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor was a German mathematician. He created set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of one-to-one correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and well-ordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are more numerous than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor's method of proof of this theorem implies the existence of an infinity of infinities. He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest, a fact he was well aware of.

  30. George Santayana

    George Santayana
    Born in
    Spain Flag Spain
    Years
    1863-1952 (aged 89)
    Occupations
    philosopherwriterpoetnovelistessayist
    Biography

    Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana, was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. Born in Spain, Santayana was raised and educated in the US from the age of eight and identified himself as an American, although he always retained a valid Spanish passport. At the age of 48, Santayana left his position at Harvard and returned to Europe permanently.

  31. Hjalmar Schacht

    Hjalmar Schacht
    Born in
    Denmark Flag Denmark
    Years
    1877-1970 (aged 93)
    Occupations
    economistbankerpolitician
    Biography

    Hjalmar Schacht was a German economist, banker, centre-right politician, and co-founder in 1918 of the German Democratic Party. He served as the Currency Commissioner and President of the Reichsbank under the Weimar Republic. He was a fierce critic of his country's post-World War I reparations obligations.

  32. Max Stirner

    Max Stirner
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1806-1856 (aged 50)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    1826-1828 studied logic, geography, and philosophy of religion
    In 1834 studied ancient language, philosophy, religion, and German
    Occupations
    philosopherjournalisttranslatorwritereducator
    Biography

    Johann Kaspar Schmidt, known professionally as Max Stirner, was a German post-Hegelian philosopher, dealing mainly with the Hegelian notion of social alienation and self-consciousness. Stirner is often seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic theory, postmodernism and individualist anarchism.

  33. Emil Adolf von Behring

    Emil Adolf von Behring
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1854-1917 (aged 63)
    Occupations
    immunologistphysiciannon-fiction writeruniversity teacherphysiologist
    Biography

    Emil von Behring, born Emil Adolf Behring (15 March 1854 – 31 March 1917), was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded in that field, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin. He was widely known as a "saviour of children," as diphtheria used to be a major cause of child death. His work with the disease, as well as tetanus, has come to bring him most of his fame and acknowledgment. He was honored with Prussian nobility in 1901, henceforth being known by the surname "von Behring."

  34. Oswald Spengler

    Oswald Spengler
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1880-1936 (aged 56)
    Occupations
    historianphilosophersociologistmathematicianwriter
    Biography

    Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art and their relation to his organic theory of history. He is best known for his two-volume work, The Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes), published in 1918 and 1922, covering world history. Spengler's model of history postulates that human cultures and civilizations are akin to biological entities, each with a limited, predictable, and deterministic lifespan.

  35. Bernhard Riemann

    Bernhard Riemann
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1826-1866 (aged 40)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    Studied in 1847-1849
    Occupations
    mathematicianphysicistuniversity teacherprofessor
    Biography

    Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry. In the field of real analysis, he is mostly known for the first rigorous formulation of the integral, the Riemann integral, and his work on Fourier series. His contributions to complex analysis include most notably the introduction of Riemann surfaces, breaking new ground in a natural, geometric treatment of complex analysis. His 1859 paper on the prime-counting function, containing the original statement of the Riemann hypothesis, is regarded as a foundational paper of analytic number theory. Through his pioneering contributions to differential geometry, Riemann laid the foundations of the mathematics of general relativity. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

  36. Gregor Gysi

    Gregor Gysi
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1948-.. (age 74)
    Occupations
    politicianlawyerwriterpresenter
    Biography

    Gregor Florian Gysi is a German attorney, president of the Party of the European Left and a prominent politician of The Left (Die Linke) political party.

  37. Robert Schuman

    Robert Schuman
    Born in
    Luxembourg Flag Luxembourg
    Years
    1886-1963 (aged 77)
    Occupations
    politiciandiplomatlawyer
    Biography

    Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman was a Luxembourg-born French statesman. Schuman was a Christian Democrat (Popular Republican Movement) political thinker and activist. Twice Prime Minister of France, a reformist Minister of Finance and a Foreign Minister, he was instrumental in building postwar European and trans-Atlantic institutions and was one of the founders of the European Union, the Council of Europe and NATO. The 1964–1965 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour. In 2021, Schuman was declared venerable by Pope Francis in recognition of his acting on Christian principles.

  38. Kurt Lewin

    Kurt Lewin
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1890-1947 (aged 57)
    Occupations
    psychologistuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Kurt Lewin was a German-American psychologist, known as one of the modern pioneers of social, organizational, and applied psychology in the United States. During his professional career Lewin applied himself to three general topics: applied research, action research, and group communication.

  39. Georg Simmel

    Georg Simmel
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1858-1918 (aged 60)
    Occupations
    philosophersociologistuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Georg Simmel was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.

  40. Karl Liebknecht

    Karl Liebknecht
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1871-1919 (aged 48)
    Occupations
    politicianlawyerrevolutionaryeditor
    Biography

    Karl Paul August Friedrich Liebknecht was a prominent German socialist and anti-militarist. A member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) beginning in 1900, he was one of its deputies in the Reichstag from 1912 to 1916, where he represented the left-revolutionary wing of the party. In 1916 he was expelled from the SPD's parliamentary group for his opposition to the political truce between all parties in the Reichstag while the war lasted. He twice spent time in prison, first for writing an anti-militarism pamphlet in 1907 and then for his role in a 1916 antiwar demonstration. He was released from the second under a general amnesty three weeks before the end of the First World War.

  41. Felix Jaehn

    Felix Jaehn
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1994-.. (age 28)
    Occupations
    disc jockeyrecord producermusicianmanufacturerremixer
    Biography

    Felix Kurt Jähn, known professionally as Felix Jaehn, is a German DJ and record producer specialising in tropical house. He achieved international success with his remix of Omi’s song "Cheerleader", which topped the charts in multiple countries and reached number-one on the Billboard Hot 100 in 2015.

  42. Franziska Giffey

    Franziska Giffey
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1978-.. (age 44)
    Occupations
    non-fiction writersocial scientistpolitician
    Biography

    Franziska Giffey is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) who has been serving as Governing Mayor of Berlin since December 2021, the first woman elected to this position. She previously served as Minister for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth in the government of Chancellor Angela Merkel from 2018 until 2021. From 2015 to 2018, she was the mayor of the borough of Neukölln in Berlin.

  43. Otto Hahn

    Otto Hahn
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1879-1968 (aged 89)
    Occupations
    chemistuniversity teachernon-fiction writernuclear physicistautobiographer
    Biography

    Otto Hahn was a German chemist who was a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is referred to as the father of nuclear chemistry and godfather of nuclear fission. Hahn and Lise Meitner discovered radioactive isotopes of radium, thorium, protactinium and uranium. He also discovered the phenomena of atomic recoil and nuclear isomerism, and pioneered rubidium–strontium dating. In 1938, Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann discovered nuclear fission, for which Hahn received the 1944 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Nuclear fission was the basis for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

  44. Martin Buber

    Martin Buber
    Born in
    Austria Flag Austria
    Years
    1878-1965 (aged 87)
    Occupations
    philosopherexistentialisttranslatorpedagoguewriter
    Biography

    Martin Buber was an Austrian Jewish and Israeli philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship. Born in Vienna, Buber came from a family of observant Jews, but broke with Jewish custom to pursue secular studies in philosophy. In 1902, he became the editor of the weekly Die Welt, the central organ of the Zionist movement, although he later withdrew from organizational work in Zionism. In 1923, Buber wrote his famous essay on existence, Ich und Du (later translated into English as I and Thou), and in 1925, he began translating the Hebrew Bible into the German language reflecting the patterns of the Hebrew language.

  45. Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia

    Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1907-1994 (aged 87)
    Occupations
    composerwriterpolitician
    Biography

    Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia was a member of the princely House of Hohenzollern, which occupied the Prussian and German thrones, until the abolition of those monarchies in 1918. He was also noteworthy as a businessman and patron of the arts.

  46. Alois Alzheimer

    Alois Alzheimer
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1864-1915 (aged 51)
    Occupations
    psychiatristneuropathologistneuroscientistuniversity teacherneurologist
    Biography

    Alois Alzheimer was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin. Alzheimer is credited with identifying the first published case of "presenile dementia", which Kraepelin would later identify as Alzheimer's disease.

  47. Menachem Mendel Schneerson

    Menachem Mendel Schneerson
    Born in
    Ukraine Flag Ukraine
    Years
    1902-1994 (aged 92)
    Occupations
    Rebbe
    Biography

    Menachem Mendel Schneerson, known to many as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or simply the Rebbe, was a Russian-Empire-born American Orthodox rabbi, and the most recent Rebbe of the Lubavitch Hasidic dynasty. He is considered one of the most influential Jewish leaders of the 20th century.

  48. Hermann von Helmholtz

    Hermann von Helmholtz
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1821-1894 (aged 73)
    Occupations
    physicistophthalmologistmusicologistmusic theoristuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz was a German physicist and physician who made significant contributions in several scientific fields. The largest German association of research institutions, the Helmholtz Association, is named after him. In physiology and psychology, he is known for his mathematics of the eye, theories of vision, ideas on the visual perception of space, color vision research, and on the sensation of tone, perception of sound, and empiricism in the physiology of perception. In physics, he is known for his theories on the conservation of energy, work in electrodynamics, chemical thermodynamics, and on a mechanical foundation of thermodynamics. As a philosopher, he is known for his philosophy of science, ideas on the relation between the laws of perception and the laws of nature, the science of aesthetics, and ideas on the civilizing power of science.

  49. Christiane Paul

    Christiane Paul
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1974-.. (age 48)
    Occupations
    actormodelfilm actorstage actor
    Biography

    Christiane Paul is a German film, television and stage actress.

  50. Theodor Heuss

    Theodor Heuss
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1884-1963 (aged 79)
    Occupations
    politicianuniversity teacherjournalist
    Biography

    Theodor Heuss was a German liberal politician who served as the first president of West Germany from 1949 to 1959. His cordial nature – something of a contrast to the stern character of chancellor Konrad Adenauer – largely contributed to the stabilization of democracy in West Germany during the Wirtschaftswunder years. Before beginning his career as a politician, Heuss had been a political journalist.

  51. Theodor Schwann

    Theodor Schwann
    Born in
    Chile Flag Chile
    Years
    1810-1882 (aged 72)
    Occupations
    biologistphysicianphysiologistuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Theodor Schwann was a German physician and physiologist. His most significant contribution to biology is considered to be the extension of cell theory to animals. Other contributions include the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism.

  52. György Lukács

    György Lukács
    Born in
    Hungary Flag Hungary
    Years
    1885-1971 (aged 86)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    Studied in 1907
    Occupations
    philosopherpoliticianwriteruniversity teachersociologist
    Biography

    György Lukács was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, literary historian, critic, and aesthetician. He was one of the founders of Western Marxism, an interpretive tradition that departed from the Marxist ideological orthodoxy of the Soviet Union. He developed the theory of reification, and contributed to Marxist theory with developments of Karl Marx's theory of class consciousness. He was also a philosopher of Leninism. He ideologically developed and organised Lenin's pragmatic revolutionary practices into the formal philosophy of vanguard-party revolution.

  53. Nikolai Pirogov

    Nikolai Pirogov
    Born in
    Russia Flag Russia
    Years
    1810-1881 (aged 71)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    Studied in 1833
    Occupations
    physicianscientistsurgeonanatomist
    Biography

    Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov was a Russian scientist, medical doctor, pedagogue, public figure, and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1847), one of the most widely recognized Russian physicians. Considered to be the founder of field surgery, he was the first surgeon to use anaesthesia in a field operation (1847) and one of the first surgeons in Europe to use ether as an anaesthetic. He is credited with invention of various kinds of surgical operations and developing his own technique of using plaster casts to treat fractured bones.

  54. George F. Kennan

    George F. Kennan
    Born in
    United States Flag United States
    Years
    1904-2005 (aged 101)
    Occupations
    diplomathistoriangeopoliticianpolitical scientistwriter
    Biography

    George Frost Kennan was an American diplomat and historian. He was best known as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War. He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between the USSR and the United States. He was also one of the group of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men."

  55. Kurt Tucholsky

    Kurt Tucholsky
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1890-1935 (aged 45)
    Occupations
    journalistpoet lawyersatiristpoetwriter
    Biography

    Kurt Tucholsky was a German journalist, satirist, and writer. He also wrote under the pseudonyms Kaspar Hauser (after the historical figure), Peter Panter, Theobald Tiger and Ignaz Wrobel.

  56. Max Scheler

    Max Scheler
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1874-1928 (aged 54)
    Occupations
    philosopheranthropologistuniversity teachersociologistaxiology
    Biography

    Max Ferdinand Scheler was a German philosopher known for his work in phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. Considered in his lifetime one of the most prominent German philosophers, Scheler developed the philosophical method of Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology. Given that school's utopian ambitions of re-founding all of human knowledge, Scheler was nicknamed the "Adam of the philosophical paradise" by José Ortega y Gasset. After Scheler's death in 1928, Martin Heidegger affirmed, with Ortega y Gasset, that all philosophers of the century were indebted to Scheler and praised him as "the strongest philosophical force in modern Germany, nay, in contemporary Europe and in contemporary philosophy as such." Scheler was an important influence on the theology of Pope John Paul II, who wrote his 1954 doctoral thesis on "An Evaluation of the Possibility of Constructing a Christian Ethics on the Basis of the System of Max Scheler", and later wrote many articles on Scheler's philosophy. Thanks to John Paul II as well as to Scheler's influence on his student Edith Stein, Scheler has exercised a notable influence on Catholic thought to this day.

  57. Zakir Hussain

    Zakir Hussain
    Born in
    India Flag India
    Years
    1897-1969 (aged 72)
    Occupations
    politician
    Biography

    Zakir Husain Khan was an Indian economist and politician who served as the third president of India, from 13 May 1967 until his death on 3 May 1969.

  58. Robert Musil

    Robert Musil
    Born in
    Austria Flag Austria
    Years
    1880-1942 (aged 62)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    1903-1908 studied psychology and philosophy
    Occupations
    writerlibrariannovelistplaywrightscreenwriter
    Biography

    Robert Musil was an Austrian philosophical writer. His unfinished novel, The Man Without Qualities (German: Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften), is generally considered to be one of the most important and influential modernist novels.

  59. Otto Warburg

    Otto Warburg
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1883-1970 (aged 87)
    Occupations
    biochemistchemistuniversity teacherphysicianphysiologist
    Biography

    Otto Heinrich Warburg, son of physicist Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist, medical doctor, and Nobel laureate. He served as an officer in the elite Uhlan (cavalry regiment) during the First World War, and was awarded the Iron Cross (1st Class) for bravery. He was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1931. In total, he was nominated for the award 47 times over the course of his career.

  60. Konstantin von Neurath

    Konstantin von Neurath
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1873-1956 (aged 83)
    Occupations
    politiciandiplomatlawyer
    Biography

    Konstantin Hermann Karl Freiherr von Neurath was a German diplomat who served as Foreign Minister of Germany between 1932 and 1938.

  61. Walther Rathenau

    Walther Rathenau
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1867-1922 (aged 55)
    Occupations
    politicianengineerwriterentrepreneurscience fiction writer
    Biography

    Walther Rathenau was a Jewish-German industrialist, writer and liberal politician.

  62. Karen Horney

    Karen Horney
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1885-1952 (aged 67)
    Occupations
    psychiatristpsychoanalystwriter
    Biography

    Karen Horney was a German psychoanalyst who practiced in the United States during her later career. Her theories questioned some traditional Freudian views. This was particularly true of her theories of sexuality and of the instinct orientation of psychoanalysis. She is credited with founding feminist psychology in response to Freud's theory of penis envy. She disagreed with Freud about inherent differences in the psychology of men and women, and she traced such differences to society and culture rather than biology. She is often classified as neo-Freudian.

  63. Wolf Biermann

    Wolf Biermann
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1936-.. (age 86)
    Occupations
    singer-songwriterpoetdissidentwritercomposer
    Biography

    Karl Wolf Biermann is a German singer-songwriter, poet, and former East German dissident. He is perhaps best known for the 1968 song "Ermutigung" and his expatriation from East Germany in 1976.

  64. Sofia Kovalevskaya

    Sofia Kovalevskaya
    Born in
    Russia Flag Russia
    Years
    1850-1891 (aged 41)
    Occupations
    mathematicianphysicistacademicnovelistuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Sofya Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya, born Korvin-Krukovskaya (15 January [O.S. 3 January] 1850 – 10 February 1891), was a Russian mathematician who made noteworthy contributions to analysis, partial differential equations and mechanics. She was a pioneer for women in mathematics around the world – the first woman to obtain a doctorate (in the modern sense) in mathematics, the first woman appointed to a full professorship in northern Europe and one of the first women to work for a scientific journal as an editor. According to historian of science Ann Hibner Koblitz, Kovalevskaya was "the greatest known woman scientist before the twentieth century".

  65. Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge

    Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1795-1867 (aged 72)
    Occupations
    chemistuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge was a German analytical chemist. Runge identified the mydriatic (pupil dilating) effects of belladonna (deadly nightshade) extract, identified caffeine, and discovered the first coal tar dye (aniline blue).

  66. Leó Szilárd

    Leó Szilárd
    Born in
    Hungary Flag Hungary
    Years
    1898-1964 (aged 66)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    In 1922 graduated with Doctor of Philosophy in physics
    Occupations
    nuclear physicistinventorphysicistengineeruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Leo Szilard was a Hungarian-American physicist and inventor. He conceived the nuclear chain reaction in 1933, patented the idea of a nuclear fission reactor in 1934, and in late 1939 wrote the letter for Albert Einstein's signature that resulted in the Manhattan Project that built the atomic bomb. According to György Marx, he was one of the Hungarian scientists known as The Martians.

  67. Lothar de Maizière

    Lothar de Maizière
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1940-.. (age 82)
    Occupations
    politicianlawyermusician
    Biography

    Lothar de Maizière is a German Christian Democratic politician. In 1990, he served as the only premier of the German Democratic Republic from outside the Socialist Unity Party. He was also the last leader of an independent East Germany.

  68. Wilhelm Dilthey

    Wilhelm Dilthey
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1833-1911 (aged 78)
    Occupations
    philosopherhistorianpsychologisttheologianpedagogue
    Biography

    Wilhelm Dilthey was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, and hermeneutic philosopher, who held G. W. F. Hegel's Chair in Philosophy at the University of Berlin. As a polymathic philosopher, working in a modern research university, Dilthey's research interests revolved around questions of scientific methodology, historical evidence and history's status as a science. He could be considered an empiricist, in contrast to the idealism prevalent in Germany at the time, but his account of what constitutes the empirical and experiential differs from British empiricism and positivism in its central epistemological and ontological assumptions, which are drawn from German literary and philosophical traditions.

  69. Paul Tillich

    Paul Tillich
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1886-1965 (aged 79)
    Occupations
    theologianphilosopheruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Paul Johannes Tillich was a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and Lutheran Protestant theologian who is widely regarded as one of the most influential theologians of the twentieth century. Tillich taught at a number of universities in Germany before immigrating to the United States in 1933, where he taught at Union Theological Seminary, Harvard Divinity School, and the University of Chicago.

  70. Hans Speidel

    Hans Speidel
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1897-1984 (aged 87)
    Occupations
    career soldiermilitary personnelresistance fighter
    Biography

    Hans Speidel was a German general, who was one of the major military leaders of West Germany during the early Cold War. The first full General in West Germany, he was a principal founder of the Bundeswehr and a major figure in German rearmament, integration into NATO and international negotiations on European and Western defence cooperation in the 1950s. He served as Commander of the Allied Land Forces Central Europe (COMLANDCENT) from 1957 to 1963 and then as President of the German Institute for International and Security Affairs from 1964.

  71. Ram Manohar Lohia

    Ram Manohar Lohia
    Born in
    India Flag India
    Years
    1910-1967 (aged 57)
    Occupations
    politicianeconomist
    Biography

    Ram Manohar Lohia pronunciation; (23 March 1910 – 12 October 1967) was an activist in the Indian independence movement and a socialist political leader. During the last phase of British rule in India, he worked with the Congress Radio which was broadcast secretly from various places in Bombay until 1942.

  72. Ferdinand Lassall

    Ferdinand Lassall
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1825-1864 (aged 39)
    Occupations
    writerpoliticianeconomistlawyerphilosopher
    Biography

    Ferdinand Lassalle was a Prussian-German jurist, philosopher, socialist and political activist best remembered as the initiator of the social democratic movement in Germany. "Lassalle was the first man in Germany, the first in Europe, who succeeded in organising a party of socialist action", or, as Rosa Luxemburg put it: "Lassalle managed to wrestle from history in two years of flaming agitation what needed many decades to come about." As agitator he coined the terms night-watchman state and iron law of wages.

  73. Wilhelm Grimm

    Wilhelm Grimm
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1786-1859 (aged 73)
    Occupations
    lexicographeranthropologistlibrarianwriterlaw librarian
    Biography

    Wilhelm Carl Grimm was a German author and anthropologist, and the younger brother of Jacob Grimm, of the literary duo the Brothers Grimm.

  74. Lion Feuchtwanger

    Lion Feuchtwanger
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1884-1958 (aged 74)
    Occupations
    writerplaywrighttranslatorjournalist
    Biography

    Lion Feuchtwanger was a Bavarian Jewish novelist and playwright. A prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, he influenced contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht.

  75. Ricarda Lang

    Ricarda Lang
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1994-.. (age 28)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    In 2014 studied jurisprudence
    Occupations
    politician
    Biography

    Ricarda Lang is a German politician who is serving as co-leader of the Alliance 90/The Greens since January 2022, alongside Omid Nouripour. She has been a member of the Bundestag since 2021. Previously, she was co-deputy leader of the party from 2019 to 2021 and spokeswoman for women's policy, and co-leader of the Green Youth from 2017 to 2019.

  76. Theodor Storm

    Theodor Storm
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1817-1888 (aged 71)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    Studied in 1838
    Occupations
    poetnovelistlawyerwriter
    Biography

    Hans Theodor Woldsen Storm, commonly known as Theodor Storm, was a German writer. He is considered to be one of the most important figures of German realism.

  77. Mihajlo Pupin

    Mihajlo Pupin
    Born in
    Serbia Flag Serbia
    Years
    1858-1935 (aged 77)
    Occupations
    chemistphysicistengineerscientistinventor
    Biography

    Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, also known as Michael Pupin, was a Serbian physicist, physical chemist and philanthropist based in the United States.

  78. Ernst Cassirer

    Ernst Cassirer
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1874-1945 (aged 71)
    Occupations
    philosopheruniversity teacherart historian
    Biography

    Ernst Alfred Cassirer was a German philosopher. Trained within the Neo-Kantian Marburg School, he initially followed his mentor Hermann Cohen in attempting to supply an idealistic philosophy of science.

  79. Hermann Minkowski

    Hermann Minkowski
    Born in
    Lithuania Flag Lithuania
    Years
    1864-1909 (aged 45)
    Occupations
    physicistmathematicianuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Hermann Minkowski was a German mathematician and professor at Königsberg, Zürich and Göttingen. In different sources Minkowski's nationality is variously given as German, Polish, or Lithuanian-German, or Russian. He created and developed the geometry of numbers and used geometrical methods to solve problems in number theory, mathematical physics, and the theory of relativity.

  80. Stéphanie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Luxembourg

    Stéphanie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
    Born in
    Belgium Flag Belgium
    Years
    1984-.. (age 38)
    Occupations
    aristocrat
    Biography

    Princess Stéphanie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, is the wife of Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume, heir apparent to the throne of Luxembourg. She became engaged to the Hereditary Grand Duke on 26 April 2012 and married him, in a civil ceremony, on 19 October 2012, followed by a religious service the next day. The couple have a son, Prince Charles.

  81. Friedrich Ratzel

    Friedrich Ratzel
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1844-1904 (aged 60)
    Occupations
    biologistgeopoliticiangeographerzoologistpolitical scientist
    Biography

    Friedrich Ratzel was a German geographer and ethnographer, notable for first using the term Lebensraum ("living space") in the sense that the National Socialists later would.

  82. Rudolf Clausius

    Rudolf Clausius
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1822-1888 (aged 66)
    Enrolled in the Humboldt University of Berlin
    Studied in 1840
    Occupations
    university teachermathematiciantheoretical physicistphysicist
    Biography

    Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics. By his restatement of Sadi Carnot's principle known as the Carnot cycle, he gave the theory of heat a truer and sounder basis. His most important paper, "On the Moving Force of Heat", published in 1850, first stated the basic ideas of the second law of thermodynamics. In 1865 he introduced the concept of entropy. In 1870 he introduced the virial theorem, which applied to heat.

  83. Kurt Eisner

    Kurt Eisner
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1867-1919 (aged 52)
    Occupations
    politicianwriterjournalist
    Biography

    Kurt Eisner was a German politician, revolutionary, journalist, and theatre critic. As a socialist journalist, he organized the Socialist Revolution that overthrew the Wittelsbach monarchy in Bavaria in November 1918, which led to his being described as "the symbol of the Bavarian revolution". He is used as an example of charismatic authority by Max Weber. Eisner subsequently proclaimed the People's State of Bavaria but was assassinated by far-right German nationalist Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley in Munich on 21 February 1919.

  84. Azmi Bishara

    Azmi Bishara
    Born in
    Israel Flag Israel
    Years
    1956-.. (age 66)
    Occupations
    politiciannovelistuniversity teacherphilosopher
    Biography

    Azmi Bishara is an Israeli Arab public intellectual, political philosopher and author. He is presently the General Director of the Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies and the Chair of the Board of Trustees of the Doha Institute for Graduate Studies.

  85. Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi

    Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1804-1851 (aged 47)
    Occupations
    mathematicianuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi was a German mathematician who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, determinants, and number theory. His name is occasionally written as Carolus Gustavus Iacobus Iacobi in his Latin books, and his first name is sometimes given as Karl.

  86. Alfred von Schlieffen

    Alfred von Schlieffen
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1833-1913 (aged 80)
    Occupations
    military officerpolitician
    Biography

    Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, generally called Count Schlieffen, was a German field marshal and strategist who served as chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891 to 1906. His name lived on in the 1905–06 "Schlieffen Plan", then Aufmarsch I, a deployment plan and operational guide for a decisive initial offensive operation/campaign in a two-front war against the French Third Republic.

  87. Nicolae Iorga

    Nicolae Iorga
    Born in
    Romania Flag Romania
    Years
    1871-1940 (aged 69)
    Occupations
    politicianlinguistgeopoliticianpoetwriter
    Biography

    Nicolae Iorga was a Romanian historian, politician, literary critic, memoirist, Albanologist, poet and playwright. Co-founder (in 1910) of the Democratic Nationalist Party (PND), he served as a member of Parliament, President of the Deputies' Assembly and Senate, cabinet minister and briefly (1931–32) as Prime Minister. A child prodigy, polymath and polyglot, Iorga produced an unusually large body of scholarly works, establishing his international reputation as a medievalist, Byzantinist, Latinist, Slavist, art historian and philosopher of history. Holding teaching positions at the University of Bucharest, the University of Paris and several other academic institutions, Iorga was founder of the International Congress of Byzantine Studies and the Institute of South-East European Studies (ISSEE). His activity also included the transformation of Vălenii de Munte town into a cultural and academic center.

  88. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1912-2007 (aged 95)
    Occupations
    physicistwriterphilosopheruniversity teachernuclear physicist
    Biography

    Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker was a German physicist and philosopher. He was the longest-living member of the team which performed nuclear research in Germany during the Second World War, under Werner Heisenberg's leadership. There is ongoing debate as to whether or not he and the other members of the team actively and willingly pursued the development of a nuclear bomb for Germany during this time.

  89. Albert A. Michelson

    Albert A. Michelson
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1852-1931 (aged 79)
    Occupations
    physicistmilitary officeruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Albert Abraham Michelson FFRS HFRSE was a German-born American physicist known for his work on measuring the speed of light and especially for the Michelson–Morley experiment. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, becoming the first American to win the Nobel Prize in a science. He was the founder and the first head of the physics departments of Case School of Applied Science (now Case Western Reserve University) and the University of Chicago.

  90. Hans Modrow

    Hans Modrow
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1928-.. (age 94)
    Occupations
    politicianeconomist
    Biography

    Hans Modrow is a German politician best known as the last communist premier of East Germany.

  91. Bernhard Grzimek

    Bernhard Grzimek
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1909-1987 (aged 78)
    Occupations
    zoologisttelevision presenterwriterfilm directorveterinarian
    Biography

    Bernhard Klemens Maria Grzimek was a German zoo director, zoologist, book author, editor, and animal conservationist in postwar West Germany.

  92. Sven Hedin

    Sven Hedin
    Born in
    Sweden Flag Sweden
    Years
    1865-1952 (aged 87)
    Occupations
    explorergeopoliticiangeographerillustratorpolitical scientist
    Biography

    Sven Anders Hedin, KNO1kl RVO, was a Swedish geographer, topographer, explorer, photographer, travel writer and illustrator of his own works. During four expeditions to Central Asia, he made the Transhimalaya known in the West and located sources of the Brahmaputra, Indus and Sutlej Rivers. He also mapped lake Lop Nur, and the remains of cities, grave sites and the Great Wall of China in the deserts of the Tarim Basin. In his book Från pol till pol (From Pole to Pole), Hedin describes a journey through Asia and Europe between the late 1880s and the early 1900s. While traveling, Hedin visited Turkey, the Caucasus, Tehran, Iraq, lands of the Kyrgyz people and the Russian Far East, India, China and Japan. The posthumous publication of his Central Asia Atlas marked the conclusion of his life's work.

  93. Walter Hallstein

    Walter Hallstein
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1901-1982 (aged 81)
    Occupations
    politiciandiplomatuniversity teacherjurist
    Biography

    Walter Hallstein was a German academic, diplomat and statesman who was the first President of the Commission of the European Economic Community and one of the founding fathers of the European Union.

  94. Carl Ritter

    Carl Ritter
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1779-1859 (aged 80)
    Occupations
    explorergeographeruniversity teacher
    Biography

    Carl Ritter was a German geographer. Along with Alexander von Humboldt, he is considered one of the founders of modern geography. From 1825 until his death, he occupied the first chair in geography at the University of Berlin.

  95. Franz Brentano

    Franz Brentano
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1838-1917 (aged 79)
    Occupations
    philosopherpsychologistuniversity teacher
    Biography

    Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Josef Brentano was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and former Catholic priest (withdrawn in 1873 due to the definition of papal infallibility in matters of Faith) whose work strongly influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, and Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts.

  96. Tamara Bunke

    Tamara Bunke
    Born in
    Argentina Flag Argentina
    Years
    1937-1967 (aged 30)
    Occupations
    revolutionaryspyjournalisttranslatorpartisan
    Biography

    Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider, better known as Tania or Tania the Guerrillera, was an Argentine-born East German communist revolutionary and spy who played a prominent role in the Cuban government after the Cuban Revolution and in various Latin American revolutionary movements. She fought alongside Marxist guerrillas under Che Guevara during the Bolivian Insurgency (1966–1967) where she was killed in an ambush by CIA-assisted Bolivian Army Rangers.

  97. Werner Forssmann

    Werner Forssmann
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1904-1979 (aged 75)
    Occupations
    military physiciansurgeonurologistcardiologistphysiologist
    Biography

    Werner Theodor Otto Forßmann was a physician from Germany who shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Medicine (with Andre Frederic Cournand and Dickinson W. Richards) for developing a procedure that allowed cardiac catheterization. In 1929, he put himself under local anesthesia and inserted a catheter into a vein of his arm. Not knowing if the catheter might pierce a vein, he put his life at risk. Forssmann was nevertheless successful; he safely passed the catheter into his heart.

  98. Alfred Döblin

    Alfred Döblin
    Born in
    Poland Flag Poland
    Years
    1878-1957 (aged 79)
    Occupations
    writerplaywrightnovelistessayistphysician writer
    Biography

    Bruno Alfred Döblin was a German novelist, essayist, and doctor, best known for his novel Berlin Alexanderplatz (1929). A prolific writer whose œuvre spans more than half a century and a wide variety of literary movements and styles, Döblin is one of the most important figures of German literary modernism. His complete works comprise over a dozen novels ranging in genre from historical novels to science fiction to novels about the modern metropolis; several dramas, radio plays, and screenplays; a true crime story; a travel account; two book-length philosophical treatises; scores of essays on politics, religion, art, and society; and numerous letters—his complete works, republished by Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag and Fischer Verlag, span more than thirty volumes. His first published novel, Die drei Sprünge des Wang-lung (The Three Leaps of Wang Lun), appeared in 1915 and his final novel, Hamlet oder Die lange Nacht nimmt ein Ende (Tales of a Long Night) was published in 1956, one year before his death.

  99. Reiner Haseloff

    Reiner Haseloff
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1954-.. (age 68)
    Occupations
    politicianphysicist
    Biography

    Reiner Haseloff is a German politician who serves as the Minister President of Saxony-Anhalt. On 9 October 2020, he was elected President of the Bundesrat. His one-year term started on 1 November 2020.

  100. Erwin Panofsky

    Erwin Panofsky
    Born in
    Germany Flag Germany
    Years
    1892-1968 (aged 76)
    Occupations
    art historianuniversity teacherphilosophersemiotician
    Biography

    Erwin Panofsky was a German-Jewish art historian, whose academic career was pursued mostly in the U.S. after the rise of the Nazi regime.